Home > 裁判資料 > オーストリア法医学学会会長ヴァルテル・ラブル博士の意見(1) -絞首刑は結果が予測できない-(英文)

オーストリア法医学学会会長ヴァルテル・ラブル博士の意見(1) -絞首刑は結果が予測できない-(英文)

Dr. Rabl’s Opinion(1)

Questions 1-11 by defense counselors and answers by Dr. Rabl

Please give us your answers to the following questions. Concerning the style of the answers, we request you to answer Q1 at first; regarding the other questions, you can choose either to answer the questions one by one, or cover the all of the questions comprehensively in one integrated answer. Thank you again for your consideration.

Q1. Could you please write about your career and achievements (books and articles, etc) as a forensic scientist?

A. Univ. Prof. Dr. Walter Rabl
1977 – 1983      study of medicine Leopold-Franzens-University Innsbruck
1983 – 1989      medical specialisation Institute of Legal Medicine Innsbruck (GMI)
1985       apprenticeship for public health officer
since 1992        officially certified and autorized expert for forensic medicine, including forensic toxicology and biological stains
1991-1992        Institute of Forensic Medicine St.Gallen, Switzerland; public health officer for the city of St. Gallen
1998      postdoctoral lecture qualification (Theme: “Injuries caused by cardiopulmonary resuscitation”)
1986 – 2000      GMI department of biological stain analysis; since 1997 National DNA Database of Austria
since 2000        GMI department of forensic toxicology (since 2002 accreditated laboratory according to ISO/IEC 17025)
since 2004        president of the Austrian Society of Forensic Medicine (ÖGGM; www.oeggm.com)
actual position  Vice director of the Institute of Legal Medicine Innsbruck

Q2. Is it possible that decapitation (DC : including complete and incomplete one) of a hanged person would occur in judicial hanging(JH)? If so, under what conditions could it occur? What kinds of studies and researches have you made concerning hanging with DC? Please explain your methods and results.  (We have attached files No.1 – 7.)

Yes. The risk of decapitation depends on several factors: length of the rope; flexibility of the rope; weight of the hanged person; thickness of the rope; position of the knob; …

Based on a case of complete decapitation caused by suicidal hanging we did biomechanical experiments and calculations concerning the forces needed for a complete decapitation. By adding the tensile strengths of neck skin (150 Newton/cm), native cervical spine (1000 Newton) and neck muscles (e.g. M. sternocleidomastoideus – 80 Newton) we found the critical value for decapitation at approximately 12000 Newton. Then we calculated iso-force-curves for 12000 Newton depending on the body weight and rope length. Elasticity of the rope and elongation of the rope length caused by tightening of the loop were expressed as the factor s (distance of deceleration). The article was published in 1995 (Rabl et al.: Erhängen mit Dekapitation. Kasuistik – Biomechanik. Archiv Kriminologie 195:31-37)

Q3. Royal Commission on Capital Punishment (1949-1953) in UK reported that ‘a man might be given too short a drop and die slowly of strangulation ‘(ref.7). Is it possible that slow strangulation with consciousness (SSC) of a hanged person would occur in JH?

Yes. This would be a typical cause of death. An immediate death caused by displaced vertebral fracture with compression of the medulla oblongata is the exception of the rule in cases of judicial hanging.

Q4. You mentioned ‘the variability of the causes of death by hanging’(Radiology Vol.196 no.3 p.615). Could you enumerate every possible cause of death which could happen in JH?

-Asphyxia caused by compression of cervical veins and arteries;
-slow asphyxiation caused by occlusion of the pharynx (1-2 minutes of consciousness are possible in the case of asymmetrical strangulation);
-decapitation;
-cervical fractures with compression of the medulla oblongata (rare);
-acute cardiac arrest caused by injury of the vagus nerve

Q5. It is often said that the death caused by JH is ‘almost instantaneous’. Is it true? Please show us the reason of your answer too.

Death caused by judicial hanging only exceptionally is “almost instantaneous” – when the medulla oblongata is severely injured. In the case of complete occlusion of the cervical arteries (Carotids and vertebral arteries) it lasts for 5 – 8 seconds until unconsciousness occurs. In the (rare) case of severe irritation of the nervus vagus with following cardiac arrest the period of consciousness lasts for approximately 10-12 seconds. If not all cervical arteries are compressed (typical in judicial hanging because of the asymmetric position of the rope!!), the period of consciousness may last for up to 2-3 minutes.

Questions Q6 – 9 below are about JH in Japan. The Supreme Court has confirmed the validity of Decree No.65 in 1873(ref.9). If actual JH has been carried out according to the decree, there is no room for carrying out executions based on ‘a drop table’. But it is not clear whether they actually use the table (or something like that) or not. We can say, no drop table is adopted at least officially in Japan.

Q6. We have attached two news stories of Japanese newspapers reporting an accident during the execution of JH with incomplete DC on July 6, 1883 (refs.1 and 2). Could you infer the cause of this accident?

The newspaper articles describe a case of incomplete decapitation during judicial hanging. Most likely this accident was caused by a combination of a too long rope (fall height) and a high body weight of the prisoner. A higher tightness of the rope with little flexibility could have been a promotive factor.

Q7. In case where JH is carried out according to the law(ref.8) and the decree(ref.9) at the present gallows with the trapdoor of the height of about 4 meters in Japan(ref.10), do you think there are any risk of DC and SSC? Do you think that the risks of DC and SSC in Japanese JH are as the same level as those in countries where they use the drop table? Please explain the reasons of your answers.

Of course with this preconditions in Japan there will remain high risks of DC or SSC. An “accurate” drop table may reduce the risk of DC on one hand, but on the other hand lower falling heights (rope lengths) increase the risk of SSC. There are several other important factors beside falling height and body weight that influence the injury patterns of judicial hangings, e.g. mechanical properties of the rope; anatomical differences; kind of knot; …

It has been shown, that the length of the drop does not produce expected or consistent results (Reay et al. Injuries produced by judicial hanging. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1994; 15:183-186)

Q8. Do you think that both risks of DC and SCC in JH of an inmate with 100 kilograms or more weight (like our client) are the same as those of a man with 69.1 kilograms (the average body weight of Japanese male at the age of 40-49 in 2005)? Do you think they can give ‘proper’ drops to all condemned inmates over the weight of 100 kilograms (ref.11 and 12)? Please explain the reasons of your answers.

There is no possibility to derive “proper” drops from the body weight only. There are several other factors that affect extent and direction of the resulting forces. Even if one could calculate the exact forces, it cannot be anticipated which effect this forces would have on a specific individual.

Nokes et al. stated in 1999, that there is no clear cut-off point between DC, immediate unconsciousness due to spinal cord disruption and death following a period of apparent consciousness (Nokes et al. Biomechanics of judicial hanging. A case report. Med Sci Law 1999; 39:61-64)

Q9. Do you think that an official adoption of a drop table or any other scientific reforms can eliminate both risks of DC and SSC from JH in Japan? Please explain the reasons of your answer.

An official drop table cannot eliminate the risks of DC and SSC, because such a drop table cannot include all factors that contribute to the injury patterns.

Q10. Could you explain the cruelty of JH you think, if any? Could you compare it with that of shooting and lethal injection?

Any method of death penalty in my opinion is cruel and incompatible with the Hippocratic oath, physicians in Austria are committed to take on graduation day. Judicial hanging is an exceptional example of cruelty because there is no scientific possibility to predict the effects of JH on a specific person. In most cases of judicial hanging death will occur not instantaneously but after a period of consciousness and therefore unnecessary pain and harm to the person concerned.

Q11. If you have anything to say about JH as a forensic scientist, please write it freely.

My personal opinion is that death penalty should be abolished all over the world. Judicial hanging is a barbarous archaic method of execution that in many cases leads to unnecessary and unpredictable periods of consciousness associated with inhuman tantalization of the convicted.

A. Univ. Prof.Dr. Walter Rabl
Institute of Legal Medicine
Medical University of Innsbruck
Muellerstrasse 44
A-6020 Innsbruck/Austria

————————————————————————————————————————————–

MEDICAL UNIVERSITY INNSBRUCK
Institute of Legal Medicine
Vice director: A.Univ.Prof. Dr.med. Walter Rabl
Muellerstraße 44, A-6020 Innsbruck

List of publications

Beer B, Rabl W, Libiseller K, Giacomuzzi S, Riemer Y, Pavlic M
[Impact of slow-release oral morphine on drug abusing habits in Austria.]
Neuropsychiatr 2010;24(2):108-17
PubMed PMID: 20605006

Herff H, Loosen SJ, Paal P, Mitterlechner T, Rabl W, Wenzel V
False positive death certification. Does the Lazarus phenomenon partly explain false positive death certification by rescue services in Germany, Austria and Switzerland? Anaesthesist. 2010 Apr;59(4):342-6
PubMed PMID: 20224947

Schrott-Fischer A, Bitsche M, Humpel C, Walcher C, Maier H, Jellinger K, Rabl W, Glueckert R, Marksteiner J.
Chromogranin peptides in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Regul Pept. 2009 Jan 8;152(1-3):13-21. Epub 2008 Aug 5.
PubMed PMID: 18721831.

Rabl W, Pavlic M, Sumann G
Lawinenunfall. Avalanche accidents.
Rechtsmedizin 2008, 18, 5: 397-406
DOI: 10.1007/s00194-008-0531-x

Ardizzone N, Cappello F, Di Felice V, Rappa F, Minervini F, Marasà S, Marasà L, Rabl W, Zummo G, Sergi C.
Atrial natriuretic peptide and CD34 overexpression in human idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies.
APMIS. 2007 Nov;115(11):1227-33.
PubMed PMID: 18092954.

Huemer HP, Himmelreich A, Hönlinger B, Pavlic M, Eisendle K, Höpfl R, Rabl W,  Czerny CP.
“Recreational” drug abuse associated with failure to mount a proper antibody response after a generalised orthopoxvirus infection.
Infection. 2007 Dec;35(6):469-73. Epub 2007 Oct 4.
PubMed PMID: 17917699.

Ruttmann E, Weissenbacher A, Ulmer H, Müller L, Höfer D, Kilo J, Rabl W, Schwarz B, Laufer G, Antretter H, Mair P.
Prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-assisted support provides improved survival in hypothermic patients with cardiocirculatory arrest.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007 Sep;134(3):594-600.
PubMed PMID: 17723804.

Pavlic M, Libiseller K, Grubwieser P, Ulmer H, Sauper T, Rabl W.
Another ’soberade’ on the market: does Outox keep its promise?
Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119(3-4):104-11.
PubMed PMID: 17347859.

Pavlic M, Grubwieser P, Libiseller K, Rabl W.
Elimination rates of breath alcohol.
Forensic Sci Int. 2007 Aug 24;171(1):16-21. Epub 2006 Oct 24.
PubMed PMID: 17064864.

Pavlic M, Libiseller K, Grubwieser P, Schubert H, Rabl W.
Medicolegal aspects of tetrazepam metabolism.
Int J Legal Med. 2007 May;121(3):169-74. Epub 2006 Oct 5.
PubMed PMID: 17021899.

Klestil T, Morlock MM, Schwieger K, Sellenschloh K, Curda B, Biedermann R, Hennerbichler A, Schmoelz W, Rabl W, Blauth M.
Migration of two different cementless hip arthroplasty stems in combination with two different heads: a biomechanical in vitro study.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2006 Aug;126(6):387-93.
Epub 2006 Mar 24. PubMed PMID: 16557367.

Libiseller K, Pavlic M, Grubwieser P, Rabl W.
An announced suicide with ecstasy.
Int J Legal Med. 2007 Jan;121(1):40-3. Epub 2005 Sep 21.
PubMed PMID: 16175411.

Libiseller K, Pavlic M, Grubwieser P, Rabl W.
Ecstasy–deadly risk even outside rave parties.
Forensic Sci Int. 2005 Oct 29;153(2-3):227-30. Epub 2005
Jan 15. PubMed PMID: 16139114.

Pavlic M, Grubwieser P, Brandstätter A, Libiseller K, Rabl W.
A study concerning the blood/breath alcohol conversion factor Q: concentration dependency and its applicability in daily routine.
Forensic Sci Int. 2006 May 10;158(2-3):149-56. Epub 2005 Jun 29.
PubMed PMID: 15993021.

Pavlic M, Libiseller K, Grubwieser P, Rabl W.
Cross-reactivity of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay with opiates: an Austrian phenomenon?
Int J Legal Med. 2005 Nov;119(6):378-81. Epub 2005 Apr 16.
PubMed PMID: 15834736.

Lederer W, Mair D, Rabl W, Baubin M.
Frequency of rib and sternum fractures associated with out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation is underestimated by conventional chest X-ray.
Resuscitation. 2004 Feb;60(2):157-62.
PubMed PMID: 15036733.

Grubwieser P, Pavlic M, Günther M, Rabl W.
Airbag contact in traffic accidents: DNA detection to determine the driver identity.
Int J Legal Med. 2004  Feb;118(1):9-13. Epub 2003 Nov 22.
PubMed PMID: 14634830.

Grubwieser P, Pavlic M, Hoefer D, Rabl W.
Complete detachment of an aortic valve prosthesis 10 years after implantation.
Int J Legal Med. 2003 Dec;117(6):367-70. Epub 2003 Oct 22.
PubMed PMID: 14574592.

Grubwieser P, Thaler A, Köchl S, Teissl R, Rabl W, Parson W.
Systematic study on STR profiling on blood and saliva traces after visualization of fingerprint marks.
J Forensic Sci. 2003 Jul;48(4):733-41.
PubMed PMID: 12877288.

Pavlic M, Haidekker A, Grubwieser P, Rabl W.
Fatal accident caused by isoflurane abuse.
Int J Legal Med. 2002 Dec;116(6):357-60.
PubMed PMID: 12596784.

Ipsiroglu OS, Fatemi A, Rabl W, Klupp N, Roll P, Meyer H, Kerbl R, Kurz R.
[Sudden infant death in Austria--status quo and recommendations of the SIDS Consensus Working Group for Improved Registration].
Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Sep 30;114(17-18):795-800. Review. German.
PubMed PMID: 12416287.

Pavlic M, Haidekker A, Grubwieser P, Rabl W.
Fatal intoxication with omethoate.
Int J Legal Med. 2002 Aug;116(4):238-41. Epub 2002 Apr 17.
PubMed PMID: 12185494.

Millonig G, Niederegger H, Rabl W, Hochleitner BW, Hoefer D, Romani N, Wick G.
Network of vascular-associated dendritic cells in intima of healthy young individuals.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Apr;21(4):503-8.
PubMed PMID:11304464.

Rieder-Scharinger J, Peer R, Rabl W, Hasibeder W, Schobersberger W.
[Multiple organ failure following inhalation of butane gas: a case report].
Wien Klein Wochenschr. 2000 Dec 22;112(24):1049-52. German.
PubMed PMID: 11204316.

Sperl W, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Pupp U, Haberlandt E, Skladal D, Brunner M, Mangold B, Kiechl S, Rabl W, Oberaigner W.
[SIDS prevention program in Tyrol].
Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2000 Mar 10;112(5):209-15. German.
PubMed PMID: 10763533.

Baubin M, Rabl W, Pfeiffer KP, Benzer A, Gilly H.
Chest injuries after active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ACD-CPR) in cadavers.
Resuscitation. 1999 Dec;43(1):9-15.
PubMed PMID: 10636312.

Baubin M, Sumann G, Rabl W, Eibl G, Wenzel V, Mair P.
Increased frequency of thorax injuries with ACD-CPR.
Resuscitation. 1999 Jun;41(1):33-8.
PubMed PMID: 10459590.

Lass-Flörl C, Salzer GM, Schmid T, Rabl W, Ulmer H, Dierichi MP.
Pulmonary Aspergillus colonization in humans and its impact on management of critically ill patients.
Br J Haematol. 1999 Mar;104(4):745-7.
PubMed PMID: 10192435.

Rabl W, Katzgraber F, Kneubuehl BP.
Ballistic aspects of tandem-loaded cartridges of identical caliber.
Int J Legal Med. 1999;112(1):58-61.
PubMed PMID: 9932745.

Waltner-Romen M, Falkensammer G, Rabl W, Wick G.
A previously unrecognized site of local accumulation of mononuclear cells. The vascular-associated lymphoid tissue.
J Histochem Cytochem. 1998 Dec;46(12):1347-50.
PubMed PMID: 9815275.

Rabl W, Riepert T, Steinlechner M.
Metal pins fired from unmodified blank cartridge guns and very small calibre weapons–technical and wound ballistic aspects.
Int J Legal Med. 1998;111(4):219-23.
PubMed PMID: 9646170.

Rabl W, Baubin M, Haid C, Pfeiffer KP, Scheithauer R.
Review of active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ACD-CPR). Analysis of iatrogenic complications and their biomechanical explanation.
Forensic Sci Int. 1997 Oct 6;89(3):175-83. Review.
PubMed PMID: 9363626.

Rabl W, Katzgraber F, Steinlechner M.
Camphor ingestion for abortion (case report).
Forensic Sci Int. 1997 Sep 19;89(1-2):137-40.
PubMed PMID: 9306672.

Haid C, Rabl W, Baubin M.
Active compression-decompression resuscitation: the influence of different chest geometries on the force transmission.
Resuscitation. 1997 Aug;35(1):83-5.
PubMed PMID: 9259065.

Krismer M, Haid C, Rabl W.
The contribution of anulus fibers to torque resistance.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996 Nov 15;21(22):2551-7.
PubMed PMID: 8961442.

Rabl W, Haid C, Krismer M.
Biomechanical properties of the human tibia: fracture behavior and morphology.
Forensic Sci Int. 1996 Nov 11;83(1):39-49.
PubMed PMID: 8939012.

Rabl W, Markwalder C.
Fatal posture- and heroin-related intestinal infarction and leg muscle necrosis after snorting heroin. A case report.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1996 Jun;17(2):163-6.
PubMed PMID: 8727294.

Rabl W, Baubin M, Broinger G, Scheithauer R.
Serious complications from active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Int J Legal Med. 1996;109(2):84-9.
PubMed PMID: 8912053.

Baubin M, Rabl W, Schirmer M, Gilly H.
Critical aspects of active compression-decompression CPR.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Suppl. 1996;109:109-11.
PubMed PMID: 8901970.

Kathrein A, Klestil T, Birbamer G, Buchberger W, Rabl W, Kuenzel K.
Rotation cryotomy: medical and scientific value of a new serial sectioning procedure.
Clin Anat. 1996;9(4):227-31.
PubMed PMID: 8793215.

Katzgraber F, Rabl W, Stainer M, Wehinger G.
[Dental prosthesis—residual alcohol content?].
Blutalkohol. 1995 Sep;32(5):274-8. German.
PubMed PMID: 7576430.

Rabl W, Steinlechner M, Katzgraer F.
Concerning the article by Charles L.Winek, Jr. et al., entitled: ‘The role of trauma in postmortem blood alcohol determination’ (Forensic Sci. Int., 71 (1995) 1-8).
Forensic Sci Int. 1995 Jul 28;74(3):213-4.
PubMed PMID: 7557755.

Rabl W, Ennemoser O, Tributsch W, Ambach E.
Iatrogenic ruptures of the stomach after balloon tamponade. Two case reports: viscoelastic model.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1995 Jun;16(2):135-9.
PubMed PMID: 7572868.

Ambach E, Rabl W, Unger C, Weiss G.
The inadequacy of death certificates claiming myocardial infarction without autopsy verification.
Forensic Sci Int. 1995 Jan 21;71(1):75-6.
PubMed PMID: 7875622.

Katzgraber F, Rabl W, Ambach E.
[Unexpected fatalities of patients in medical treatment].
Wien Med Wochenschr. 1995;145(6):140-3. German.
PubMed PMID: 7785281.

Rabl W, Haid C, Katzgraber F, Walser B.
[Hanging with decapitation. Case report--biomechanics].
Arch Kriminol. 1995 Jan-Feb;195(1-2):31-7. German.
PubMed PMID: 7710313.

Antretter H, Dapunt OE, Rabl W, Ambach E, Zehethofer K, Mair P, Wiedermann CJ.
Third-degree atrioventricular block in adult identical twins.
Lancet. 1994 Jun 18;343(8912):1576-7.
PubMed PMID: 7911904.

Rabl W, Liniger B, Sutter K, Sigrist T.
[Ethanol content of Kefir water].
Blutalkohol. 1994 Mar;31(2):76-9. German.
PubMed PMID: 8204224.

Rabl W, Sigrist T, Marty W.
[Epidural hematoma with atypical clinical course].
Unfallchirurg. 1993 Dec;96(12):632-5. German.
PubMed PMID: 8128257.

Rabl W, Blumthaler M.
[Apparently supernatural healing forces from a prepared shoe].
Arch Kriminol. 1993 Sep-Oct;192(3-4):111-5. German.
PubMed PMID: 8257257.

Rabl W, Eller W.
[Wound ballistics of extremely short-range shotguns].
Arch Kriminol. 1993 Jul-Aug;192(1-2):43-8. German.
PubMed PMID: 8215761.

Rabl W, Sigrist T, Sutter K.
[Iatrogenic methadone poisoning].
Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1993 Feb 23;82(8):217-9. German.
PubMed PMID: 8441877.

Rabl W, Sigrist T.
[Fatal exsanguination from a small venous injury].
Arch Kriminol. 1992 Nov-Dec;190(5-6):171-5. German.
PubMed PMID: 1482233.

Rabl W, Auer M.
Unusual death of a farmer.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1992 Sep;13(3):238-42.
PubMed PMID: 1476131.

Rabl W, Markwalder C.
[Gunshot injury caused by a training bullet].
Arch Kriminol. 1992 Sep-Oct;190(3-4):88-96. German.
PubMed PMID: 1444710.

Rabl W, Sigrist T.
[Xanthogranuloma of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle (case report)].
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 1992 Aug;60(8):305-7. German.
PubMed PMID: 1511946.

Rabl W, Sigrist T.
[Separation of stomach contents using the sieve-tower technique].
Arch Kriminol. 1992 May-Jun;189(5-6):164-8. German.
PubMed PMID:1642497.

Sigrist T, Knüsel HP, Markwalder C, Rabl W.
[The "inner gunshot residue"—a gunshot entry marker in gunshot of ridged skin].
Arch Kriminol. 1992 Mar-Apr;189(3-4):91-9. German. #
PubMed PMID: 1610267.

Rabl W, Ringer E.
[Blood group determination of a single hair].
Beitr Gerichtl Med. 1992;50:139-43. German.
PubMed PMID: 1489317.

Rabl W.
[Sudden death after consumption of chloral hydrate].
Beitr Gerichtl Med. 1992;50:131-4. German.
PubMed PMID: 1489315.

Rabl W, Ambach E, Tributsch W.
[Asphyxia protracted after shaking trauma].
Arch Kriminol. 1991 May-Jun;187(5-6):137-45. German.
PubMed PMID: 1888261.

Rabl W, Tributsch W, Ambach E.
Iatrogenic ruptures of the stomach after balloon tamponade–two case reports.
Gastroenterology. 1991 Apr;100(4):1157.
PubMed PMID: 2001823.

Tributsch W, Rabl W, Ambach E.
[Unusual wound morphology after textile penetration by the automatic rifle (StG) 58. A case report].
Arch Kriminol. 1991 Mar-Apr;187(3-4):75-83. German.
PubMed PMID: 1859215.

Ambach E, Tributsch W, Rabl W.
[Fatal injuries caused by glass fragments. Case reports and autopsy findings].
Arch Kriminol. 1991 Jan-Feb;187(2):39-46.
German. PubMed PMID: 2036057.

Tributsch W, Rabl W, Ambach E, Henn R.
Unusual finding in a water-logged corpse–hyperchylomicronemia or pulmonary fat embolism?
Int J Legal Med. 1991;104(3):173-6.
PubMed PMID: 1911417.

Rabl W, Ambach E, Tributsch W.
[Postmortem changes after 50 years immersion (1939 reconstructed suicide)].
Beitr Gerichtl Med. 1991;49:85-9. German.
PubMed PMID: 1811537.

Ambach E, Tributsch W, Puffer P, Rabl W.
[Unusual discovery of 2 cadavers in a glacier--forensic and glacier-related aspects].
Beitr Gerichtl Med. 1991;49:285-8. German.
PubMed PMID: 1811510.

Ambach E, Tributsch W, Rabl W, Fuchs D, Reibnegger G, Henn R, Wachter H.
Postmortem neopterin concentrations: comparison of diagnoses with and without cellular immunological background.
Int J Legal Med. 1991;104(5):259-62.
PubMed PMID: 1782146.

Ambach E, Rabl W, Tributsch W.
[Fatalities in west Austrian prisons].
Arch Kriminol. 1990 Jul-Aug;186(1-2):17-22. German.
PubMed PMID: 2278504.

Rabl W, Ambach E, Tributsch W.
[Unusual circumstances in the discovery of a cadaver. Autopsy and results of findings].
Arch Kriminol. 1990 Mar-Apr;185(3-4):93-8. German.
PubMed PMID: 2350201.

Tributsch W, Rabl W, Ambach E, Fend F.
[Sudden death of a young asthmatic patient--allergic granulomatous angiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome)].
Z Rechtsmed. 1990;103(5):385-91. German.
PubMed PMID: 2356665.

Ambach E, Tributsch W, Rabl W.
[Attempted infanticide with a happy ending. Report of infanticide in Tirol and Vorarlberg].
Beitr Gerichtl Med. 1990;48:667-72. German.
PubMed PMID: 2241856.

Tributsch W, Ambach E, Rabl W.
[Post-traumatic hydrocephalus--result of repeated abuse of a young child].
Beitr Gerichtl Med. 1990;48:613-9. German.
PubMed PMID: 2241849.

Rabl W, Tributsch W, Ambach E.
[Premature craniosynostosis--cause of sudden death in children and young adults].
Beitr Gerichtl Med. 1990;48:217-21. German.
PubMed PMID: 2241793.

Tributsch W, Rabl W, Ambach E.
[Fatal accidents of motorcycle riders. Comparison of the craniocervical injury picture before and following introduction of the legally sanctioned protective helmet rule].
Beitr Gerichtl Med. 1989;47:625-30. German.
PubMed PMID: 2818543.

Ambach E, Rabl W, Tributsch W.
[Fatalities in Alpine skiing--autopsy results and forensic medicine conclusions].
Beitr Gerichtl Med. 1989;47:591-5. German.
PubMed PMID: 2818538.

Rabl W, Ambach E, Battista HJ.
[Skin damage caused by fatal benzene fume inhalation].
Beitr Gerichtl Med. 1989;47:295-300. German.
PubMed PMID: 2818492.

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